Optimizing the main menu for SEO

A Web site’s main menu plays a crucial role in both site architecture and user experience. It acts as a road map for both users and search engines, allowing them to quickly find the information they want.

A well-structured main menu helps organize content into clearly defined categories, which improves the site’s comprehensibility and accessibility. This contributes to a positive user experience, which is an important factor for search engines in determining a website’s ranking.

How search engines use the main menu

Search engines use the main menu to understand the structure and hierarchy of a Web site. By analyzing the links and menu structure, search engines can get a clear picture of the most important pages and how they relate to each other.

This helps in the efficient crawling and indexing of the site, increasing its visibility in search results. Therefore, the main menu can be seen as an essential part of a website’s SEO strategy.

Optimizing the main menu for search engines

Integrating relevant keywords into menu items is an effective way to improve a website’s SEO. Start with thorough keyword research to determine what terms your target audience uses when searching for your products or services.

Then integrate these keywords naturally into the titles and descriptions of your menu items. This helps search engines understand the relevance of your pages for these keywords, which can improve the findability of your website.

Structure and hierarchy

A logical and intuitive menu structure is essential for both user experience and SEO. A well-organized menu with clear categories and subcategories makes it easier for users to navigate through your website and find the information they want.

For search engines, such a structure highlights the hierarchy of information on the site, which helps index the content. Make sure the most important categories are immediately visible in the main menu and use subcategories to further structure the content.

Navigation Links

When designing the main menu, it is crucial to keep the navigation as simple as possible. This means avoiding deep navigation – where users must traverse multiple layers to get to the desired content – is important. Make sure all important pages are accessible from the homepage within three clicks.

This not only improves the user experience, but also makes it easier for search engines to find and index all parts of the site. Use clear and descriptive text for your navigation links to help both users and search engines understand what to expect on the page to which the link leads.

Usability and the main menu

A mobile-friendly and accessible menu is essential for SEO, as search engines such as Google consider mobile-friendliness a key ranking factor. A menu that works well on mobile devices ensures that visitors can easily navigate regardless of the device they are using.

This reduces the bounce rate and increases the time spent on the site, which sends positive signals to search engines about the quality of the website. In addition, accessibility contributes to a wider accessibility of the website, allowing users with disabilities to use the site effectively. This not only improves the overall user experience but also supports the ethical and social responsibility of web design.

Technical considerations for the main menu

When using CSS and JavaScript to design the main menu, it is important to consider loading speed and accessibility. Excessive use of JavaScript can slow site load time, which can be negative for both user experience and SEO.

Make sure the menu is still functional even when JavaScript is disabled by applying progressive enhancement techniques. This ensures that all users can access basic navigation regardless of their browser or device settings. Use CSS for styling and visual effects in a way that does not negatively affect load times, and make sure the menu is responsive for different screen sizes.

Internal link structure

The main menu plays a crucial role in structuring a Web site’s internal link structure. By strategically linking important pages from the main menu, link value (link juice) can be effectively distributed throughout the site, increasing the SEO value of individual pages.

Make sure links in the main menu point directly to important sections and pages, and use descriptive anchor text that contains relevant keywords. This not only helps search engines understand the context of linked pages, but also improves navigation for users. Using the main menu effectively as part of the internal linking strategy is essential for maximizing the SEO performance of the entire website.

The main menu and site architecture

The main menu serves as the backbone for the site architecture, not only facilitating user navigation but also helping to effectively propagate link equity – the value passed through links from one page to another. A strategically designed main menu ensures that all important pages of the website are within easy reach, strengthening the internal link structure. This increases the chances that search engines can easily find and index important content.

Structuring the main menu around important, keyword-rich categories increases the relevance of the website for those keywords. In addition, it helps distribute link equity across the site, which can improve the ranking of individual pages in search engine results. It is essential that the menu makes clear the hierarchy and relationship between different sections of the site, thus supporting the overall SEO structure of the website.

Analyzing the effectiveness of the main menu

Main menu performance, in terms of SEO and user experience, can be measured with different tools and methods. Google Analytics provides insights into how users navigate the site, including bounce rates and page-visit duration, which can be indicators of menu effectiveness. Heatmap tools such as Hotjar or Crazy Egg can visually display where users click within the menu, which helps identify popular sections or potential areas for improvement.

SEO tools such as Screaming Frog can be used to analyze the structure of the site and determine if the menu contributes to a logical and efficient site architecture. These tools can also help identify broken links within the menu, which can hurt the user experience and SEO.

Best practices for designing an SEO-friendly main menu

When designing an SEO-friendly main menu, there are several best practices to keep in mind:

  1. Simplicity and clarity: Make sure the menu is simple and intuitive. Each item must be clearly defined and match the user’s expectations.
  2. Use of keywords: Integrate relevant keywords into menu items. This not only helps users find what they are looking for, but also helps search engines index the site.
  3. Limit the number of items: An overcrowded menu can be overwhelming. Limit the number of items to the most essential sections so as not to dilute attention.
  4. Responsive design: Make sure the menu works well on all devices, especially cell phones and tablets, to ensure mobile-friendliness.
  5. Accessibility: Implement best practices for accessibility, such as ensuring adequate contrast and using ARIA labels, to ensure that the menu can be used by everyone.
  6. Consistent structure: Keep the menu consistent across the site. Menu changes on different pages can be confusing for both users and search engines.
  7. Test and repeat: Use A/B testing and user feedback to continually evaluate the effectiveness of the menu and make improvements.

By following these recommended practices, a main menu can be designed that not only contributes to a positive user experience but also boosts the website’s SEO performance.


Creating an effective main menu is essential for improving both user navigation and a website’s SEO performance. By optimizing the menu with relevant keywords, maintaining a logical structure, and making the navigation process accessible to all users, a website can significantly increase its visibility in search engines. Continually analyzing and adjusting the menu based on user behavior and SEO analytics is crucial to maintaining its effectiveness over time.

Senior SEO-specialist

Ralf van Veen

Senior SEO-specialist
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I have been working for 10 years as an independent SEO specialist for companies (in the Netherlands and abroad) that want to rank higher in Google in a sustainable manner. During this period I have consulted A-brands, set up large-scale international SEO campaigns and coached global development teams in the field of search engine optimization.

With this broad experience within SEO, I have developed the SEO course and helped hundreds of companies with improved findability in Google in a sustainable and transparent way. For this you can consult my portfolio, references and collaborations.

This article was originally published on 27 March 2024. The last update of this article was on 24 June 2024. The content of this page was written and approved by Ralf van Veen. Learn more about the creation of my articles in my editorial guidelines.